AMERICAN MILITARY UNITS (1953-1995)
According to John Finnegan, HQ INSCOM, in 1953 the 513 Military Intelligence Service Group activated at the post to perform interrogation, translation, and report preparation functions. In 1959, the group assumed counterintelligence functions for northern Germany. In July 1961 the group was redesignated the 513th Intelligence Corps Group. (In 1961, the Counter Intelligence Corps was combined with other intelligence units to form Military Intelligence Corps) It was again redesignated the 513 Military Intelligence Group in October of 1966 due to the intelligence Corps being discontinued as a separate Army Organization. The Military Intelligence connection with Camp King ceased, on October 22, 1968, as the 513th Military Intelligence Group relocated to Munich. (Finnegan)
To quote directly from the 513th MI Brigade website:
"The 513th MI Brigade was constituted in the Regular Army as the 513th Military Intelligence Service Group on October 22, 1952, and activated on January 15, 1953, at Oberursel, Germany, as a subordinate command of U.S. Army Europe. The Group reorganized and redesignated as the 513th Military Intelligence Group on October 20, 1953, and subsequently assumed command and control of numerous subordinate elements and field stations located throughout West Germany. The Group again reorganized and redesignated as the 513th Military Intelligence Corps Group on July 25, 1961, and later redesignated again as the 513th Military Intelligence Group. The Group performed its mission of intelligence collection and counterespionage in support of United States Army Europe until its inactivation on June 25, 1969."
According to Keith Curtice:
"The 513th MI Brigade was constituted in the Regular Army as the 513th Military Intelligence Service Group on October 22, 1952, and activated on January 15, 1953, at Oberursel, Germany, as a subordinate command of U.S. Army Europe. The Group reorganized and redesignated as the 513th Military Intelligence Group on October 20, 1953, and subsequently assumed command and control of numerous subordinate elements and field stations located throughout West Germany.
During the 1950s, before and after its inception as the 513th, it was an Interrogation Center for escapees, refugees and returned prisoners from eastern Europe and the USSR: there were at least 25 German Interrogators; at least 3 Polish Interrogators, and at least 2 Czechoslovakian Interrogators for most of the time until the "Wall" went up in Berlin. I served in the Army there as Czech interrogator from August 1954 until September 1956; my wife, also there in the Army during the same period, served first as German document translator and then as Interrogator. We met, married and returned to the U.S. in 1956. Several of the interrogators spoke several languages. Of the 250 or so Army personnel there, about 1/3 of whom were officers, most had been to the Army Language School (ALS - now DLI: Defense Language Institute in the Presidio in Monterey California) or were naturalized citizens. Most of the refugees crossed from East to West Berlin. For most of the 50s the count was almost 1000 per day, at least 25,000 per month. And the majority were between twenty and forty years old. It was that drain of young people that led to the building of "The Wall" in 1961 to stop the exodus. Some refugees/escapees managed to get through or over the "Iron Curtain" barricades that ran from the Baltic Sea to the Adriatic. Others came through Vienna until 5 May 1955 when the Four Power Occupation of Austria formally ended. When the large flow of refugees ceased in 1961, the need for Camp King as an interrogation center ceased."
Although little is known of the mission of the 513th, a glimpse of how important the role played by the unit can be seen in the defection of Glen Rohrer in August of 1965. SFC. Rohrer was a polygraph operator who defected to Czechoslovakia. The intelligence community reported that they had been set 5 to 10 years behind in the European Theater. It was also reported that his defection endangered many lives as well as allowed highly classified information to be compromised. According to Stasi written by John O. Koehler, the unit was responsible for all intelligence operations in Europe. Initially, although it was suppose to be a command and control unit, it was setup as more of a support/subordinate unit; however, it later gained the power that it was due when Colonel Ross became its commander. According to Louis Rychtarik, a Czechoslovakian who defected in the Spring of 1967, he was interrogated on the post by the 513th. He applauds the Americans professionalism in handling of his case. He states that the Eastern soldiers and intelligence services where aware of the "Intelligence Nest" located on Camp King. (The use of this information is not intended to undermine the 513th MI Group. It is used because this is the only nonclassified documentation that I could find in reference to the mission and how important the unit was. Unfortunately, in the Intelligence Field, successes are closely guarded secrets whereas failures have a tendency to become public. I am sure the successes far outweighed the failures )
513th Military Intelligence Brigade Insignia their motto is Vigilant Knights
The mission of the post essentially remained unchanged from 1939 to 1968 as it was used for intelligence gathering.
In late 1968 the 107th Transportation Brigade and the U.S. Army Traffic management Agency, Central Europe moved to the post to form the Headquarters, United States Transportation Command that was made active on December 1, 1968. (General Order 254) This was redesigned the 4th Transportation Brigade and later the 4th Transportation Command, in February of 1981. (DOD Records)
The mission of the 4th Transportation Command, as stated in military records, was to operate integrated transportation service in support of US Forces in Central Europe. The responsibilities encompassed: 1) Operation of military highway transportation system; 2) Operation of a military water terminal: 3) Reception and processing and onward transportation of military units deployed in Europe; 4) movement and control of personnel and material; 5) Traffic management for US forces in Central Europe; 6) Preparation of USAEUR Wartime movement program; 7) Intra-theater transport employing both US Air Force and US Army aircraft; and, 8) Traffic regulation services for US Forces in Central Europe. This unit was deactivated and its mission assigned to the 1st Transportation Movement Control Agency, which was formed from the command and control section of the former 4th TRANSCOM. (DOD Records)
4th Transportation Command Insignia
There were also 2 smaller units, the 228th Signal Detachment and the 10th General Dispensary.
The 228th Signal Detachment provided Communications and Communications Security to the Headquarters 4th Transportation Brigade. It also provided communications support to an Air Force detachment located on Feldberg, Det 1945/12. (Feldberg was located approximately 5 miles from the post, on Feldberg Mountain; it was a radio relay, facility.) (DOD Records) "Feldberg" as it was known was located on Mt. Kolbenberg. There was a civilian Television Tower on a adjacent mountain. The higher mountain was called "Grosser Feldberg" because it was located on a Bigger/Grosser mountain and was higher in altitude. (information received from John Cox)
" When I was there in 1974-1976, many American Airmen stationed at Detachment 12, 1945 Communications Group RRL/Radio Relay (I can't remember if the L stood for anything), We used to call the German Radio Tower Grosser Feldberg. We did so to differentiate between our military tower and the civilian German radio & television broadcasting tower which was located on an adjacent mountain that was higher in altitude. In the vernacular, bigger brother, or Grosse Feldberg und Kleine Feldberg." (John Cox)
The 10th General Dispensary provided emergency first aid and sick call services for both troops and dependents. It also conducted physical examinations. All x-rays, lab work as well as any other medical services were provided by the 97th General Hospital, located in Frankfurt. (DOD Records)
Although not mentioned in records, there was also a detachment of MPs assigned to the post, the 570th MP Platoon. Their mission was to provide security for rail and occasional water transport of small arm and munitions from port to the depot. (Information provided by Philip Nall, Former MP assigned to the 570th)
The 1st Transportation Movement Control Agency was activated on the 18th of February 1986. This unit had previously been the movements and control and management element of the 4th Transportation Command. The activation of the unit as a command was ordered as part of a restructuring and streamlining transportation management. The unit was reassigned to US Army Europe on October 11, 1988. In March of 1995 it was designated as the 1st Transportation Movement Control Agency. (1st TMCA Website)
1st TMCA Insignia (Courtesy of Michael Riedl, 1st TMCA)
The Stars & Stripes also refers to the 22nd Signal
Brigade as being on the post. The 22nd Signal Brigade provided communications
support to V Corps. The dates the unit was on the post are unknown; however, it is
believed that this was the last tenant unit assigned. (V Corps Website)
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WORLD WAR II "DULAG LUFT" 1939-1945
POST WORLD WAR II (1945-1953)
The Gehlen Organization
AMERICAN MILITARY UNITS (1953-1995)
THE FRANKFURT AMERICAN MILITARY COMMUNITY
EMPLOYMENT TELEVISION, RADIO AND THE STARS AND STRIPES NEWSPAPER
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THE PEOPLE AND CITY OF OBERURSEL
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